A. Christensen

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Spinal dorsal horn circuits receive, process, and transmit somatosensory information. To understand how specific components of these circuits contribute to behavior, it is critical to be able to directly modulate their activity in unanesthetized in vivo conditions. Here, we develop experimental tools that enable optogenetic control of spinal circuitry in(More)
Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons(More)
Optogenetics offers promise for dissecting the complex neural circuits of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system and has therapeutic potential for addressing unmet clinical needs. Much progress has been made to enable optogenetic control in normal and disease states, both in proof-of-concept and mechanistic studies in rodent models. In this Review,(More)
John S. Ho, Yuji Tanabe, Shrivats Mohan Iyer, Amelia J. Christensen, Logan Grosenick, 3 Karl Deisseroth, 3, 4, 5, 6 Scott L. Delp, 7 and Ada S. Y. Poon Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Neurosciences Program, Stanford(More)
Motivation. When you are bitten by a mosquito, you know that the bump itches. When you burn your hand on a match, you know that the match was hot. This ability to discriminate sensory modalities is present, despite the fact that these stimuli activate overlapping sets of peripheral receptors, and travel to your brain generally along the same paths,(More)
The design and implementation of two distributed routers for transputer networks are described in the paper. The routers are designed from different considerations but have a common aim-to provide a user a transparent environment independent of the underlying hardware for software development. Typical problems in such design are discussed. In particular,(More)
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