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T cell antigen recognition involves the formation of a structured interface between antigen-presenting and T cells that facilitates the specific transmission of activating and desensitizing stimuli. The molecular machinery that organizes the signaling molecules and controls their disposition in response to activation remains poorly understood. We show here(More)
Aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in immune function. Studies have shown age-related decreases in the expression and signaling efficiency of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in monocytes and dendritic cells and dysregulation of macrophage TLR3. Using a multivariable mixed effect model, we report a highly significant increase in TLR5-induced production(More)
To elucidate the intracellular pathways that mediate early B cell development, we directed expression of activated Ras to the B cell lineage in the context of the recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1)-deficient background (referred to as Ras-RAG). Similar to the effects of an immunoglobulin (Ig) mu heavy chain (HC) transgene, activated Ras caused(More)
Studies addressing immunosenescence in the immune system have expanded to focus on the innate as well as the adaptive responses. In particular, aging results in alterations in the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first described pattern recognition receptor family of the innate immune system. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the(More)
Topoisomerases are crucial for solving DNA topological problems, but they have not been linked to RNA metabolism. Here we show that human topoisomerase 3β (Top3β) is an RNA topoisomerase that biochemically and genetically interacts with FMRP, a protein that is deficient in fragile X syndrome and is known to regulate the translation of mRNAs that are(More)
Allelic exclusion is a mechanism that permits expression of only one of the two sets of parental Ig alleles (1-5). How this occurs is not known, but experiments in transgenic mice suggest that it is mediated by the membrane-bound form of the 4 heavy chain (6). It is likely that exclusion operates by inhibiting V/DJ or D/J recom-bination of the nonexpressed(More)
BACKGROUND An increasing number of patients have medical conditions with altered host immunity or that require immunosuppressive medications. While immunosuppression is associated with increased risk of infection, the precise effect of immunosuppression on innate immunity is not well understood. We studied monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and(More)
BACKGROUND The role of the immune response in influencing leptospirosis clinical outcomes is not yet well understood. We hypothesized that acute-phase serum cytokine responses may play a role in disease progression, risk for death, and severe pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (SPHS). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We performed a case-control study design to(More)
In larval lamprey, partial lesions were made in the rostral spinal cord to determine which spinal tracts are important for descending activation of locomotion and to identify descending brain neurons that project in these tracts. In whole animals and in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, brain-initiated spinal locomotor activity was present when the(More)