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1. Encoding of temporal stimulus parameters by inferior collicular (IC) neurons of Eptesicus fuscus was studied by recording their responses to a wide range of repetition rates (RRs) and durations at several stimulus intensities under free field stimulus conditions. 2. The response properties of 424 IC neurons recorded were similar to those reported in(More)
The response of rat neocortical slices to electrical stimulation at the layer VI/white matter border was recorded using intrinsic signal optical imaging. The optical response of the slice is column-shaped, extends from layer VI to the pial surface, and is strongly correlated with the amplitude of simultaneously recorded evoked potentials. Spectral analysis(More)
1. We have investigated the effect of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane on acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat brain cortical slices. 2. The release of [3H]-ACh into the incubation fluid was studied after labeling the tissue ACh with [methyl-3H]-choline chloride. 3. We observed that sevoflurane induced an increase on the release of ACh that was dependent(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spider toxins on brain injury induced by oxygen deprivation and low glucose (ODLG) insult on slices of rat hippocampus. After ODLG insult cell viabilility in hippocampal slices was assessed by confocal microscopy and epifluorescence using the live/dead kit containing calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer(More)
Pretest exposure to novelty or injections of beta-endorphin can enhance passive avoidance (PA) retention (e.g., Izquierdo & McGaugh, 1985). Enhanced retention may result from a "state-dependent" match between the CNS state during test and the novelty-induced beta-endorphin state that is obtained during training in a novel apparatus. Our Experiment 1(More)
The role of calcium channels blockers in ischemic condition has been well documented. The PhTx3 neurotoxic fraction of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom is a broad-spectrum calcium channel blocker that inhibits glutamate release, calcium uptake and also glutamate uptake in synaptosomes. In the present study we describe the effect of PhTx3 (1.0(More)
The in vivo neuroprotective effect of PhTx3-4, a spider toxin N-P/Q calcium channel blocker, was studied in a rat model of NMDA-induced injury of the retina. NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)-induced retinal injury in rats reduced the b-wave amplitude by 62% ± 3.6%, indicating the severity of the insult. PhTx3-4 treatment increased the amplitude of the b-wave,(More)
In spinal cord synaptosomes, the spider toxin PhTx3-4 inhibited capsaicin-stimulated release of glutamate in both calcium-dependent and -independent manners. In contrast, the conus toxins, ω-conotoxin MVIIA and xconotoxin MVIIC, only inhibited calcium-dependent glutamate release. PhTx3-4, but not ω-conotoxin MVIIA or xconotoxin MVIIC, is able to inhibit the(More)
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the pharmacological action of a calcium channel-blocking toxin from the venom of the spider Phonetic nigriventer, Tx3-4 on calcium channels coupled to exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Tx3-4 blocked KCl-induced exocytosis of synaptic vesicles with an IC50 of 1.1 nM. To investigate whether the target of Tx3-4(More)
In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of blockers of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) and intracellular calcium stores on retinal ischemic damage induced by oxygen deprivation-low glucose insult (ODLG) was investigated. Retinal damage induced by ODLG was dependent on the calcium concentration in the perfusion medium. When incubated in(More)