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A single visual stimulus activates neurons in many different cortical areas. A major challenge in cortical physiology is to understand how the neural activity in these numerous active zones leads to a unified percept of the visual scene. The anatomical basis for these interactions is the dense network of connections that link the visual areas. Within this(More)
We previously showed that feedback connections from MT play a role in figure/ground segmentation. Figure/ground coding has been described at the V1 level in the late part of the neuronal responses to visual stimuli, and it has been suggested that these late modulations depend on feedback connections. In the present work we tested whether it actually takes(More)
1. Single-unit and multiunit activities were recorded at the area 17-18 border of each cortical hemisphere in paralyzed cats anesthetized with nitrous oxide supplemented with halothane. Cross-correlation histograms (CCHs) were computed between 86 pairs of single units and 99 pairs of multiunit activities. Visually evoked peaks in the CCHs were removed by(More)
We analyzed the extracellular responses of 70 V1 neurons (recorded in 3 anesthetized macaque monkeys) to a single oriented line segment (or bar) placed within the cell classical receptive field (RF), or center of the RF. These responses could be modulated when rings of bars were placed entirely outside, but around the RF (the "near" surround region), as(More)
Postmortem histological studies have demonstrated that myelination in human brain white matter (WM) continues throughout adolescence and well into adulthood. We used in vivo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to test for age-related WM changes in 42 adolescents and 20 young adults. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of the adolescent(More)
In dipterans, the wing-beat frequency, and, hence, the lift generated, increases linearly with ambient temperature. If flight performance is an important target of natural selection, higher wing:thorax size ratio and wing-aspect ratio should be favored at low temperatures because they increase the lift for a given body weight. We investigated this(More)
Brain development continues actively during adolescence. Previous MRI studies have shown complex patterns of apparent loss of grey matter (GM) volume and increases in white matter (WM) volume and fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of WM microstructure. In this longitudinal study (mean follow-up=2.5+/-0.5 years) of 24 adolescents, we used a voxel-based(More)
We examined 20 Drosophila melanogaster populations collected from a 2600-km north-south transect in Australia. In laboratory culture at constant temperature and standard larval density, a genetic cline in thorax length and wing area was found, with both traits increasing with latitude. The cline in wing area was based on clines in both cell size and cell(More)
The results of a previous study [Hupé et al. (1998) Nature, 394: 784-787] led us to conclude that feedback connections are important for differentiating a figure from the background, particularly in the case of low salience stimuli. This conclusion was principally based on the observation in area V3 neurons that inactivating MT by cooling led to a severe(More)