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Neuromodulation is a field of science, medicine, and bioengineering that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies for the purpose of improving quality of life and functioning of humans. Brain neuromodulation involves different neurostimulation techniques: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation(More)
A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and(More)
OBJECTIVES "Epileptic dementia" is reported in adults with childhood-onset refractory epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration can also occur in a "second-hit model". MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics of patients with cognitive deterioration (≥1 SD discrepancy between current IQ and premorbid IQ). Memory(More)
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