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— We analyze a 15-year time series of North American electric power transmission system blackouts for evidence of self-organized criticality. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail and R/S analysis of the time series shows moderate long time correlations. Moreover, the same analysis applied to a time(More)
We analyze a 15-year time series of North American electric power system blackouts for evidence of self-organized criticality. Scaled window variance and R/S analysis of the time series shows moderate long time correlations. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail. Moreover, the same analysis applied to(More)
We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system blackout sizes using scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in many(More)
Back in 2003, we published 'MAX' randomization, a process of non-degenerate saturation mutagenesis using exactly 20 codons (one for each amino acid) or else any required subset of those 20 codons. 'MAX' randomization saturates codons located in isolated positions within a protein, as might be required in enzyme engineering, or else on one face of an(More)
We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system bIackout sizes usiflg scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with .further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in(More)
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