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To determine the safety, efficacy, and the ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) of mini-dose intrathecal morphine, 33 healthy women who underwent cesarean section with spinal anesthesia using 0.75% bupivacaine in 8.25% dextrose were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive, in a double-blind fashion, either morphine 0.25 mg (group I, n =(More)
Formate generated from methanol metabolism in vivo is the chemical entity responsible for the development of the methanol toxicity syndrome in the monkey. Compared to rats, monkeys are in a state of folate deficiency. This leads to a decreased ability to dispose of formate generated leading to its accumulation and the subsequent development of the classic(More)
This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of transnasal butorphanol (TNB) compared to intravenous butorphanol (IVB) in 186 patients experiencing moderate to severe post-cesarean section pain. Patients were randomly assigned to five groups in a double-blind fashion: Group I (n = 37) received 2 mg IVB, Group II (n = 38) 2 mg TNB, Group(More)
Formic acid does not accumulate in the rat after the administration of methanol as it does in methanol-poisoned humans and monkeys. In addition, rats do not manifest the metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity characteristic of methanol intoxication in primates. Nitrous oxide treatment was used to inhibit 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine(More)
Previous to 1950, when Bonnichsenl isolated crystalline alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and showed that it did not react with methanol,$ it was believed that the ADH system was responsible for the oxidation of all primary aliphatic alcohols, including methanol (FIGURE 1 ) . This observation redirected attention to the peroxidative system as a means of oxidizing(More)
Rhesus monkeys were intoxicated with methyl alcohol, using an initial dose of 2 gm/kg and subsequent doses were administered in order to maintain an attenuated and prolonged state of intoxication. Arterial blood samples were drawn for methyl alcohol, formate, PO2, PCO2, and pH, which were monitored periodically throughout the course of the experiment. With(More)