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Space radiations, especially heavy ions, constitute significant hazards to astronauts. These hazards will increase as space missions lengthen. Moreover, the dangers to astronauts will be enhanced by the persistence, or even the progression, of biological damage throughout their subsequent life spans. To assist in the assessment of risks to astronauts, we(More)
Recognition of the human risks from radiation exposure during manned missions in deep space has been fostered by international co-operation; interagency collaboration is facilitating their evaluation. Further co-operation can lead, perhaps by the end of this decade, to an evaluation of one of the three major risks, namely radiation cataractogenesis,(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the long-term effects of total body irradiation (TBI) on the incidence and time course of ocular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS Rhesus monkeys treated with TBI photon doses up to 8.5 Gy and proton doses up to 7.5 Gy were studied at intervals up to 25 years post-irradiation. They were compared with control groups with a similar(More)
Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be(More)
Theories of cellular radiation sensitivity that preclude a significant role for cellular repair processes in the final biological expression of cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation are unsound. Experiments are discussed here in which the cell-cycle dependency of the repair deficiency of the S/S variant, of the L5178Y murine leukemic lymphoblast(More)
This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of(More)
As part of an investigation of the responses of optic and proximate tissues to heavy-ion irradiation, the lenses of New Zealand white rabbits were exposed to the Bragg plateau regions of 530 MeV/amu Ar ions and 365 MeV/amu Ne ions and also to 60Co gamma-photons. The linear energy transfers (LET infinity s) for the radiations were 90 +/- 5, 35 +/- 3, and 0.3(More)
As an approach to determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of each of five different heavy ions for the mammalian brain, histological preparations of brains from mice exposed to various HZE particles at different doses and primary LETinfinity values were examined by means of semi-automated image analysis for volume changes in specific regions(More)