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Brain aging is associated with altered Ca(2+) regulation. However, many Ca(2+) signal transduction mechanisms have not been explored in the aged brain. Here, we report that cytosolic expression and activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) increases in the hippocampus during aging. CaN changes were paralleled by increased(More)
In addition to its role in virus entry, HIV-1 gp120 has also been implicated in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for gp120-mediated neuroinflammation remain undefined. In view of increased levels of IL-6 in HIV-positive individuals with neurological manifestations, we sought to address whether gp120 is involved(More)
Recent experimental and clinical reports support the fact that the minocycline exhibits significant neuroprotective activity in neurodegenerative diseases. However, its mechanism of neuroprotection is still far from our understanding. Besides, minocycline does not always produce neuroprotective effect. Therefore, this study has been designed to explore the(More)
Oxidative stress and disrupted energy metabolism are major events leading to nerve cell death. Oxidative stress and related reactive oxygen species is one of the common cooperative sharing pathways involved in neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease. The present study evaluated the possible role of sertraline on the 3-nitropropionic acid(More)
Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the commonly used illicit drugs and the central nervous system toxicity of MA is well documented. The mechanisms contributing to this toxicity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of MA on the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, IL-6 and IL-8 in an astrocytic cell(More)
Neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies demonstrated that neuro-inflammation and associated infiltration of inflammatory cells into central nervous system are inhibited by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors. Based on these experimental evidences,(More)
Frequent and persistent stressful events caused depressive illness. Stress is an aversive stimulus which disturbs physiological homeostasis and reflects a variety of biological systems. The present study was designed to investigate the nitric oxide mechanism in the protective effect of imipramine and venlafaxine against acute immobilization stress-induced(More)
There is increasing evidence that opiates accelerate the pathogenesis and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), as well as the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis (HIVE), a condition characterized by inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and microglial activation. The mechanisms, by which the HIV-1(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia disorder of elderly affecting millions of people. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and involves multiple pathways of neuronal damage. Sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) has been shown to be associated with microtubular dysfunction and is characterized by the appearance of(More)
Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as increased calcium concentration in cytoplasm, exhaustive ATP depletion, oxidative stress, as well as selective GABAergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neuronal death. Clinical data hint towards the connection between signalling of dopaminergic system and efficient amelioration(More)