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The inflamed liver in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is characterized by a large influx of non-virus-specific CD8 T cells. Little is known about the functional capacity of these lymphocytes, which could provide insights into mechanisms of failure of viral control and liver damage in this setting. We compared the effector function of total(More)
Immunity declines during aging, however the mechanisms involved in this decline are not known. In this study, we show that cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to recall antigens are significantly decreased in older individuals. However, this is not related to CC chemokine receptor 4, cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen, or CD11a(More)
Alone among herpesviruses, persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) markedly alters the numbers and proportions of peripheral immune cells in infected-vs-uninfected people. Because the rate of CMV infection increases with age in most countries, it has been suggested that it drives or at least exacerbates “immunosenescence”. This contention remains controversial and(More)
The extent of human memory T cell proliferation, differentiation, and telomere erosion that occurs after a single episode of immune challenge in vivo is unclear. To investigate this, we injected tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin of immune individuals and isolated responsive T cells from the site of antigenic challenge at different(More)
The Second International Workshop on CMV & Immunosenescence was held in Cambridge, UK, 2-4th December, 2010. The presentations covered four separate sessions: cytomegalovirus and T cell phenotypes; T cell memory frequency, inflation and immunosenescence; cytomegalovirus in aging, mortality and disease states; and the immunobiology of(More)
Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) experience excessive T cell proliferation after primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, due to mutations in the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) associated protein (SAP) molecule. We examined the impact of dysfunctional proliferative control on the extent of CD8+ T cell(More)
Ageing is accompanied by alterations to T-cell immunity and also by a low-grade chronic inflammatory state termed inflammaging. The significance of these phenomena is highlighted by their being predictors of earlier mortality. We have recently published that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα is a strong inducer of CD4+ T-cell senescence and T-cell(More)
Pathological processes involved in the initiation of rheumatoid synovitis remain unclear. We undertook the present study to identify immune and stromal processes that are present soon after the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by assessing a panel of T cell, macrophage, and stromal cell related cytokines and chemokines in the synovial fluid of(More)
In T lymphocytes, p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) regulates pleiotropic functions and is activated by canonical MAPK signaling or the alternative T cell receptor (TCR) activation pathway. Here we show that senescent human T cells lack the canonical and alternative pathways of p38 activation, but spontaneously engage the metabolic master regulator AMPK to trigger p38(More)