A A Podtelezhnikov

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Ligation of short DNA fragments results in the formation of linear and circular multimers of various lengths. The distribution of products in such a reaction is often used to evaluate fragment bending caused by specific chemical modification, by bound ligands or by the presence of irregular structural elements. We have developed a more rigorous quantitative(More)
Type II DNA topoisomerases actively reduce the fractions of knotted and catenated circular DNA below thermodynamic equilibrium values. To explain this surprising finding, we designed a model in which topoisomerases introduce a sharp bend in DNA. Because the enzymes have a specific orientation relative to the bend, they act like Maxwell's demon, providing(More)
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