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Anaemia is increasingly prevalent in the United Kingdom. Despite recommendations to the contrary, many patients undergo cardiac surgery with undiagnosed and untreated anaemia. According to the World Health Organization definition, 1463/2688 (54.4%) patients undergoing cardiac surgery between 2008 and 2009 in our institution were anaemic. Compared with(More)
Increased, symmetrical signals of varying intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted (T1W) images, without corresponding signals on T2-weighted (T2W) images, have been reported previously in chronic hepatic failure. It has been suggested that these signals are characteristic of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the(More)
Safe vascular access is integral to anaesthetic and critical care practice, but procedures are a frequent source of patient adverse events. Ensuring safe and effective approaches to vascular catheter insertion should be a priority for all practitioners. New technology such as ultrasound and other imaging has increased the number of tools available. This(More)
Almost 30,000 cardiopulmonary bypass operations are performed in the UK every year, consuming a considerable portion of the UK blood supply. Each year, in cardiac surgery, 90% of blood products are used by only 10% of patients, and over the past 25 years, much innovation and research has gone into improving peri-operative diagnosis and therapy for these(More)
BACKGROUND Previous trials have indicated that cell salvage may reduce allogeneic blood transfusion during cardiac surgery, but these studies have limitations, including inconsistent use of other blood transfusion-sparing strategies. We designed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether routine cell salvage for elective uncomplicated cardiac(More)
BACKGROUND Administration of coagulation factor concentrates to treat bleeding after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass might be a strategy for reducing allogeneic blood transfusions, particularly for patients treated with warfarin preoperatively. We performed an exploratory analysis on whether the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is(More)
The use of intraoperative cell salvage and autologous blood transfusion has become an important method of blood conservation. The main aim of autologous transfusion is to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and its associated complications. Allogeneic blood transfusion has been associated with increased risk of tumour recurrence, postoperative(More)
This review examines the science and methodology of blood conservation in modern anaesthetic and surgical practice. Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in all surgical patients, and the reduction or even elimination of transfusion has been and continues to be the subject of much research. Blood substitutes, despite(More)
Antifibrinolytic drugs have become almost ubiquitous in their use during major surgery when bleeding is expected or commonplace. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic pathway after tissue injury has been consistently shown to reduce postoperative or traumatic bleeding. There is also some evidence for a reduction of perioperative blood transfusion. However,(More)