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Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is gaining increased clinical significance owing to the relative success of therapeutic approaches to the motor symptoms of this disorder. Early investigations contributed to the concept of subcortical dementia associated with bradyphrenia and cognitive rigidity. For cognition in parkinsonian(More)
Learning in a constant environment, and adapting flexibly to a changing one, through changes in reinforcement contingencies or valence-free cues, depends on overlapping circuitry that interconnects the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with the striatum and is subject to several forms of neurochemical modulation. We present evidence from recent studies in animals(More)
Research into the heterogeneous nature of cognitive impairment documented in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has focused on disentangling deficits that vary between individuals, evolve and respond differentially to pharmacological treatments, and relate differentially to PD dementia (PDD). We summarise studies conducted in our laboratory over the(More)
Noradrenergic dysfunction may play a significant role in cognition in Parkinson's disease due to the early degeneration of the locus coeruleus. Converging evidence from patient and animal studies points to the role of noradrenaline in dopaminergically insensitive aspects of the parkinsonian dysexecutive syndrome, yet the direct effects of noradrenergic(More)
This study sought to disambiguate the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on cognitive control as indexed by task set switching, by addressing discrepancies in the literature pertaining to disease severity and paradigm heterogeneity. A task set is governed by a rule that determines how relevant stimuli (stimulus set) map onto specific responses (response(More)
Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period(More)
This study investigated the hypothesis that rule reconfiguration in task switching can isolate aspects of intact and impaired control at different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) by comparing switches between concrete naming rules pertaining to stimulus selection, to switches between abstract rules which allocate categorization responses to these(More)
In follow-up to a large-scale ethics survey of neuroscientists whose research involves neuroimaging, brain stimulation and imaging genetics, we conducted focus groups and interviews to explore their sense of responsibility about integrating ethics into neuroimaging and readiness to adopt new ethics strategies as part of their research. Safety, trust and(More)
Cognitive enhancement is signified by adaptive behavioural change following an intervention that targets the brain. Although much of the discussion and research into cognitive enhancement focuses on the effects of neural interventions in healthy individuals, it is useful to consider evidence from clinical populations. Diseases of the central nervous system(More)