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Marine bacteria often dominate the plankton biomass and are responsible for much of the cycling of organic matter, but bacterial diversity is poorly understood because conventional identification methods (requiring culturing) miss about 99% of the organisms. Recent advances permit characterization of microbial communities by analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA(More)
HSF1 is the major heat shock transcriptional factor that binds heat shock element (HSE) in the promoter of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and controls rapid Hsp induction in cells subjected to various environmental stresses. Although at least four members of the vertebrate HSF family have been described, details of their individual physiological roles remain(More)
Neuroectoderm cells in the cortical ventricular zone generate many diverse cell types, maintain the ventricular zone during embryonic life and create another germinal layer, the subventricular zone, which persists into adulthood. In other vertebrate tissues, including skin, intestine, blood and neural crest, stem cells are important in maintaining a(More)
Nature 345, 60 (1990). 8. V. Torsvik, J. Goksoyr, F. L. Daae, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 782 (1990). 9. D. M. Ward, R. Weller, M. M. Bateson, Nature 345, 63 (1990). 10. E. F. DeLong, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 5685 (1992). 11. J. A. Fuhrman, K. McCallum, A. A. Davis, Nature 356, 148 (1992). 12. S. M. Barns, R. E. Fundyga, M. W. Jeffries, N. R.(More)
The extent of the diversity of marine prokaryotes is not well known, primarily because of poor cultivability. However, new techniques permit the characterization of such organisms without culturing, via 16S rRNA sequences obtained directly from biomass. We performed such an analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification with universal primers on five(More)
Ventricular zone cells in the developing CNS undergo extensive cell division in vivo and under certain conditions in vitro. The culture conditions that promote cell division have been studied to determine the role that contact with cell membrane associated factors play in the proliferation of these cells. Progenitor cells have been taken from the(More)
We know very little about species distributions in prokaryotic marine plankton. Such information is very interesting in its own right, and ignorance of it is also beginning to hamper process studies, such as those on viral infection. New DNA- and RNA-based approaches avoid many prior limitations. Here we discuss four such applications: (1) cloning and(More)
Prestile is a late maturing potato variety with attractive, round to oblong, white-skinned, white-fleshed tubers with shallow eyes. Its major use is expected to be for tablestock in areas where Katahdin and Ontario are now grown. Prestile tubers are slow to sprout in storage and do not show the net necrosis caused by potato leafroll virus, but are quite(More)
The Quaggy Joe potato variety is high-yielding and medium to medium-late maturing with attractive, round-oval, white-skinned, white-fleshed tubers with medium-shallow pink eyes. Its major use is expected to be as a maincrop tablestock variety. Quaggy Joe is resistant to the potato leafroll virus, and is also moderately resistant to early blight (Alternaria(More)