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MOTIVATION The ancestor of birds and mammals lived approximately 300 million years ago. Inferring its genome organization is key to understanding the differentiated evolution of these two lineages. However, detecting traces of its chromosomal organization in its extant descendants is difficult due to the accumulation of molecular evolution since birds and(More)
The pairwise comparison of RNA secondary structures is a fundamental problem, with direct application in mining databases for annotating putative noncoding RNA candidates in newly sequenced genomes. An increasing number of software tools are available for comparing RNA secondary structures, based on different models (such as ordered trees or forests, arc(More)
Since the availability of assembled eukaryotic genomes, the first one being a budding yeast, many computational methods for the reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and gene orders have been developed. The difficulty has always been to assess their reliability, since we often miss a good knowledge of the true ancestral genomes to compare their results to,(More)
In this paper we propose a dynamic programming algorithm to evaluate local similarity between ordered quotiented trees using a constrained edit scoring scheme. A quotiented tree is a tree defined with an additional equivalent relation on vertices and such that the quotient graph is also a tree. The core of the method relies on two adaptations of an(More)
In genome rearrangement theory, one of the elusive questions raised in recent years is the enumeration of rearrangement scenarios between two genomes. This problem is related to the uniform generation of rearrangement scenarios and the derivation of tests of statistical significance of the properties of these scenarios. Here we give an exact formula for the(More)
We investigate the problem of inferring contiguous ancestral regions (CARs) of the genome of the last common ancestor of all extant amniotes, based on the currently sequenced and assembled am-niote genomes as ingroups and three teleost fish genomes as outgroups. We combine a methodological framework using conserved syntenies computed from whole genome(More)
In the context of ancestral gene order reconstruction from extant genomes, there exist two main computational approaches: rearrangement-based, and homology-based methods. The rearrangement-based methods consist in minimizing a total rearrangement distance on the branches of a species tree. The homology-based methods consist in the detection of a set of(More)
In fruit trees, understanding genetic determinisms of architectural traits is considered as a promising manner to control vegetative development and yield regularity. In this context, our study aimed to classify 2-year-old apple hybrids on the basis of their architectural traits. From a fine phenotyping, trees were described as tree graphs, including(More)
Segmental duplications in genomes have been studied for many years. Recently, several studies have highlighted a biological phenomenon called breakpoint-duplication that apparently associates a significant proportion of segmental duplications in Mammals, and the Drosophila species group, to breakpoints in rearrangement events. In this paper, we introduce(More)
Alternative splicing is pervasive among complex eukaryote species. For some genes shared by numerous species, dozens of alternative transcripts are already annotated in databases. Most recent studies compare and catalog alternate splicing events within or across species, but there is an urgent need to be able to compare sets of whole transcripts both(More)