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The first man reported in the world literature exhibiting habitual quadrupedal locomotion was discovered by a British traveler and writer on the famous Bagdad road near Havsa/Samsun on the middle Black Sea coast of Turkey (Childs, 1917). The man most probably belonged to a Greek family, since the region of Havsa was populated by Greek people during the time(More)
Sowohl an narkotisierten als auch an decerebrierten oder spinalisierten Katzen führt die Injektion von 1 mg/kg Pervitin i.v. zu einem verstärkten excitatorischen Antrieb der tonischen α-Motoneurone. Ruhende oder unterschwellig erregte Motoneurone beginnen zu feuern und treten in die Entladungszone ein. Pervitin bewirkt aber nicht nur eine Rekrutierung,(More)
1. The effects of the antidepressive agent Imipramine (Tofranil®) upon the spinal motor systems of decerebrate or lightly anaesthetized cats were analyzed, with particular reference to the effects of low doses (0.5–1 mg/kg i.v.). 2. After such doses, the threshold of monosynaptic mass reflexes of lumbar segments was increased; submaximal or maximal(More)
1. Variations in repetitive firing patterns of extensor alpha motoneurones caused by afferent tetanizations at different intensity and frequencies were investigated in decerebrated cats. 2. Motoneuronal units were isolated by dividing ventral roots and tetanization of the ipsilateral gastrocnemius nerves with 100–200 Hz. The amplitude of extracellularly(More)
Cognitive sex differences have been demonstrated in humans: men usually outperform women on spatial ability (Linn & Peterson, 1985; Gladue et al., 1990; Mann et al., 1990; Gouchie & Kimura, 1991; Gladue & Bailey, 1995; Halpern & Tan, 2001; Tan et al., 2003a, b; Herlitz & Lovén, 2009); women outperform men on verbal tasks (Hyde & Linn, 1988; Mann et al.,(More)
Flexor muscle spindles of the cat supplied by fusimotor α-fibres are found to be innervated both by several ventral root fibres of one spinal segment and by neighbouring segments. Subthreshold stimulation of a thin filament of a ventral root may condition the subthreshold stimulation of the converging sister-filament for a period of some milliseconds. In(More)
1. The mechanism of motoneuronal depression induced by increasing the number of electrically stimulated gastrocnemius afferents was studied in decerebrate cats. 2. Increasing the threshold stimulus intensity for the group I afferents gradually up to two times caused a linear increase in amplitude of the nerve action potentials recorded from the dorsal root(More)
INTRODUCTION A century ago, Kraepelin stated that the distinctive feature of schizophrenia was progressive deterioration. Kraepelin criteria for schizophrenia are: (1) continuous hospitalization or complete dependence on others for obtaining basic necessities of life, (2) unemployment and (3) no remission for the past five years. We aimed to determine the(More)
Locomotion is the movement of an organism from one place to another, often by the action of appendages such as flagella, limbs, or wings. In some animals, such as fish, locomotion results from a wavelike series of muscle contractions (The American Heritage® Science Dictionary, 2005). Walking is the act of traveling by foot; gait is the manner of walking;(More)