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Ballast water management is a complex issue raising the challenge of merging international regulations, ship's specific configurations along with ecological conservation. This complexity is illustrated in this paper by considering ballast water volume, discharge frequency, ship safety and operational issues aligned with regional characteristics to address… (More)
The paper discusses the environmental impacts of changes in international maritime activity. Minor modifications have been made to the paper in the aftermath of the Global Forum. The views expressed are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OECD or its member countries.
Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of… (More)