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Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for brain development and plasticity, and here we tested if the functional BDNF val66met variant modulates the association between high levels of childhood abuse, cognitive function, and brain abnormalities in psychoses. METHOD 249 patients with a broad DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorder(More)
Estimating white matter fiber pathways from a diffusion ten-sor MRI dataset has many important applications in medical research. However, the standard approach of performing tracking on single-tensor estimates per voxel is confounded by regions of multiple pathways in different directions. Building on previous work for estimating multiple tensors from MR(More)
A reoccurring theme in the diffusion tensor imaging literature is the per-voxel estimation of a symmetric 3 x 3 tensor describing the measured diffusion. In this work we attempt to generalize this approach by calculating 2 or 3 or up to k diffusion tensors for each voxel. We show that our procedure can more accurately describe the diffusion particularly(More)
During the last ten years or so, diffusion tensor imaging has been used in both research and clinical medical applications. To construct the diffusion tensor images, a large set of direction sensitive magnetic resonance image (MRI) acquisitions are required. These acquisitions in general have a lower signal-to-noise ratio than conventional MRI acquisitions.(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have thinner cortex in prefrontal and temporal brain regions, and enlarged lateral ventricles, compared to healthy subjects. Longitudinal studies have shown progressive brain tissue loss and ventricular dilatation among patients, predominantly in the early phase(More)
This article reviews work published by the ENIGMA Consortium and its Working Groups (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu). It was written collaboratively; P.T. wrote the first draft and all listed authors revised and edited the document for important intellectual content, using Google Docs for parallel editing, and approved it. Some ENIGMA investigators contributed(More)
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