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BACKGROUND Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in(More)
Folates are carriers of one-carbon units and are metabolized by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and other enzymes that use riboflavin, cobalamin, or vitamin B6 as cofactors. These B vitamins are essential for the remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine, which is an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. We studied the(More)
BACKGROUND Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation(More)
BACKGROUND Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is assumed to ensure adequate micronutrients for term infants. Our objective was to investigate the effects of prolonged breastfeeding on B vitamin status and neurodevelopment in 80 infants with subnormal birth weights (2000-3000 g) and examine if cobalamin supplementation may benefit motor function in infants(More)
BACKGROUND B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer. Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and colorectal cancer are scarce or inconclusive. METHODS We carried out a nested case-control study within the European Prospective(More)
BACKGROUND Immune system activation is involved in atherosclerosis. Neopterin production and tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway, measured by the kynurenine-tryptophan ratio (KTR), are induced by interferon gamma, thus both are considered markers of cell mediated immune activation. This study prospectively investigated their predictive(More)
Vitamins B2 and B6 serve as cofactors in enzymatic reactions involved in tryptophan and homocysteine metabolism. Plasma concentrations of these vitamins and amino acids are related to smoking and inflammation, and correlate with other markers of immune activation. Large-scale studies of these relations have been hampered by lack of suitable analytical(More)
OBJECTIVE Interferon γ (IFN-γ) is centrally involved in atherosclerosis-related inflammation, but its activity cannot be reliably assessed by systemic measurements. In activated macrophages, IFN-γ stimulates production of neopterin and conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. We evaluated the relationships of plasma neopterin and plasma kynurenine:tryptophan(More)
Circulating neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) increase during inflammation and serve as markers of cellular immune activation, but data are sparse on other determinants of these markers and metabolites of the kynurenine pathway. We measured neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, anthranilic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine,(More)
BACKGROUND Biomarkers and metabolites related to B vitamin function and one-carbon metabolism have been studied as predictors of chronic diseases in studies based on samples stored in biobanks. For most biomarkers, stability data are lacking or fragmentary. METHODS Degradation and accumulation kinetics of 32 biomarkers were determined at 23 °C in serum(More)