Øivind Midttun

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BACKGROUND Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in(More)
INTRODUCTION Underreporting of smoking in epidemiologic studies is common and may constitute a validity problem, leading to biased association measures. In this prospective study, we validated self-reported tobacco use against nicotine exposure assessed by plasma cotinine in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS The study was based(More)
OBJECTIVE Enhanced tryptophan degradation, induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ, has been related to cardiovascular disease progression and insulin resistance. We assessed downstream tryptophan metabolites of the kynurenine pathway as predictors of acute myocardial infarction in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris. Furthermore, we(More)
Vitamins B2 and B6 serve as cofactors in enzymatic reactions involved in tryptophan and homocysteine metabolism. Plasma concentrations of these vitamins and amino acids are related to smoking and inflammation, and correlate with other markers of immune activation. Large-scale studies of these relations have been hampered by lack of suitable analytical(More)
OBJECTIVE Two published studies have demonstrated that betaine in the circulation is a determinant of plasma total homocysteine, but none had sufficient power to investigate the possible effect modification by folate status. METHODS AND RESULTS We measured homocysteine, betaine, folate, vitamin B(6), and related compounds in serum/plasma from 500 healthy(More)
CONTEXT B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)(More)
OBJECTIVE Past studies of cigarette smoking as a contributor to orofacial clefts and neural tube defects (NTDs) used self-reports of smoke exposures. We have correlated measurements of cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) in mid-pregnancy sera with clefts and NTDs. STUDY DESIGN From a repository of >180 000 mid-pregnancy serum specimens collected in(More)
BACKGROUND Immune system activation is involved in atherosclerosis. Neopterin production and tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway, measured by the kynurenine-tryptophan ratio (KTR), are induced by interferon gamma, thus both are considered markers of cell mediated immune activation. This study prospectively investigated their predictive(More)
OBJECTIVE Interferon γ (IFN-γ) is centrally involved in atherosclerosis-related inflammation, but its activity cannot be reliably assessed by systemic measurements. In activated macrophages, IFN-γ stimulates production of neopterin and conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. We evaluated the relationships of plasma neopterin and plasma kynurenine:tryptophan(More)
Folates are carriers of one-carbon units and are metabolized by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and other enzymes that use riboflavin, cobalamin, or vitamin B6 as cofactors. These B vitamins are essential for the remethylation and transsulfuration of homocysteine, which is an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. We studied the(More)