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NMDA receptor (NMDAR) 2A (NR2A)- and NR2B-type NMDARs coexist in synapses of CA1 pyramidal cells. Recent studies using pharmacological blockade of NMDAR subtypes proposed that the NR2A type is responsible for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas the NR2B type induces long-term depression (LTD). This contrasts with the finding in genetically(More)
NMDA receptors, a class of glutamate-gated cation channels with high Ca2+ conductance, mediate fast transmission and plasticity of central excitatory synapses. We show here that gene-targeted mice expressing NMDA receptors without the large intracellular C-terminal domain of any one of three NR2 subunits phenotypically resemble mice made deficient in that(More)
In adult mice, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission at CA3-to-CA1 synapses induced by tetanic stimulation requires L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors containing GluR-A subunits. Here, we report a GluR-A-independent form of LTP, which is comparable in size to LTP in wild-type mice at postnatal day 14(More)
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are essential for modulating synaptic strength at central synapses. At hippocampal CA3-to-CA1 synapses of adult mice, different NMDAR subtypes with distinct functionality assemble from NR1 with NR2A and/or NR2B subunits. Here we investigated the role of these NMDA receptor subtypes in long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Because(More)
Activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations, such as long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (LTP). NMDARs are composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits, and NR2 subunit-dependent gating properties of NMDAR subtypes cause dramatic differences in the timing of charge transfer. These postsynaptic temporal profiles(More)
Alterations of learning and memory in mice with deregulated neuron-specific nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity support the idea that plastic changes of synaptic contacts may depend at least in part on IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB-related synapse-to-nucleus signaling. There is, however, little information on the molecular requirements and mechanisms regulating(More)
Novel spatially restricted genetic manipulations can be used to assess contributions made by synaptic plasticity to learning and memory, not just selectively within the hippocampus, but even within specific hippocampal subfields. Here we generated genetically modified mice (NR1(deltaDG) mice) exhibiting complete loss of the NR1 subunit of the(More)
The AMPA receptor subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1 or GluR-A) contributes to amygdala-dependent emotional learning. It remains unclear, however, to what extent different amygdala pathways depend on GluR1, or other AMPA receptor subunits, for proper synaptic transmission and plasticity, and whether GluR1-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) is necessary(More)
High frequency afferent stimulation of chemical synapses often induces short-term increases in synaptic efficacy, due to increased release probability and/or increased supply of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. This may be followed by synaptic depression, often caused by vesicle depletion. We here describe an additional, novel type of delayed and(More)
Controversy revolves around the differential contribution of NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, which coexist in principal forebrain neurons, to synaptic plasticity and learning in the adult brain. Here, we report genetically modified mice in which the NR2B subunit is selectively ablated in principal neurons of the entire postnatal forebrain or only(More)