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The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC) burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it's still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers(More)
Intracranial germ cell tumors (ICGCTs) occur mainly in male children and adolescents. Polyploidy of the X chromosome and X hypomethylation have been suggested as mechanisms of malignant transformation independently of the histological tumor type. On the other hand, several reports associate these tumors with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). Recent reports(More)
Gonadoblastoma (GB) is an in situ tumor consisting of a heterogeneous population of mature and immature germ cells, other cells resembling immature Sertoli/granulosa cells, and Leydig/lutein-like cells, may also be present. GB almost exclusively affects a subset of patients with intersex disorders and in 30% of them overgrowth of the germinal component of(More)
BACKGROUND Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Isolates of EBV are classified according to sequence variation in the latency genes such as Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA). EBNA2 contains the most divergent locus and is classified into type 1 and type 2 or EBNA2A and EBNA2B,(More)
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a developmental anomaly in which most of the patients have a dysgenetic testis, a contralateral streak and a 45,X/46,XY karyotype. This entity involves an heterogeneous group of gonadal and phenotypic abnormalities with a wide clinical spectrum. The phenotype depends on the ratio of testicular tissue which induces(More)
Klinefelter syndrome is a well documented abnormality of sex differentiation, with an incidence of 1 in 600 newborn males. It is characterized by a 47,XXY or a mosaic karyotype and clinical findings of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, small testes, infertility, reduced body hair, gynecomastia, and tall stature. Other conditions like venous disease,(More)
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, due to a 7q11.23 hemizygous deletion. WS has a characteristic neurocognitive profile that includes intellectual disability (ID). Haploinsufficiency of some of the deleted genes is partially associated with the cognitive phenotype. The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in the(More)
Gonadoblastoma is an unusual mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor that has the potential for malignant transformation and 30% of all patients with gonadoblastoma develop germ cell tumors mainly dysgerminoma/seminoma. An additional 10% gives rise to other malignant germ cell neoplasms. This tumor affects a subset of patients with intersex disorders. The(More)
Sex differentiation in humans depends on the presence of the Y-linked gene SRY, which is activated in the pre-Sertoli cells of the developing gonadal primordium to trigger testicular differentiation. Occasionally testicular formation can take place in subjects lacking a Y chromosome resulting in a 46,XX sex reversal condition. True hermaphroditism (TH) is a(More)
The role of testosterone in cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis is in controversy, and the exact effects of testosterone on the cardiovascular system remain poorly understood. Testosterone is metabolized by aromatase into 17β-estradiol and by 5α-reductase into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Thus, identification of these metabolites in the heart may help to explain(More)