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AIMS The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many functions, including protein folding, redox homeostasis, and Ca(2+) storage and signaling. To perform these multiple tasks, the ER is composed of distinct, specialized subregions, amongst which mitochondrial-associated ER membranes (MAM) emerge as key signaling hubs. How these multiple functions are(More)
Oxidative protein folding in the luminal compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum is thought to be mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system composed by PDI and ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1), transferring electrons from the cysteinyl residues of substrate proteins to oxygen. However, recent observations revealed that Ero1 isoforms are dispensable.(More)
Stress is the imbalance of homeostasis, which can be sensed even at the subcellular level. The stress-sensing capability of various organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been described. It has become evident that acute or prolonged ER stress plays an important role in many human diseases; especially those involving organs/tissues(More)
The mechanism of ascorbate oxidation was studied in rat liver microsomes. A continuous consumption of the added ascorbate was observed, which was accompanied with a prompt appearance of ascorbyl free radical and dehydroascorbate. Microsomes sustained steady-state level of ascorbyl free radical and dehydroascorbate till ascorbate was present in the medium.(More)
The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a separate intracellular compartment with a special proteome and metabolome. The redox conditions of the organelle are also characteristically different from those of the other subcellular compartments. The luminal environment has been considered more oxidizing than the cytosol due to the presence of(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central for many essential cellular activities, such as folding, assembly and quality control of secretory and membrane proteins, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, lipid biosynthesis, Ca(2+) storage and signaling. In addition, this multifunctional organelle integrates many adaptive and/or maladaptive signaling cues(More)
Addition of ascorbate or its generation from gulonolactone causes the oxidation of protein thiols and a simultaneous dehydroascorbate formation in rat liver microsomes. The participation of vitamin E in the phenomenon was studied. We measured ascorbate and protein thiol oxidation and lipid peroxidation in vitamin E deficient liver microsomes. Vitamin E(More)
The redox state of the intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool was investigated in rat liver microsomal vesicles. The vesicles showed cortisone reductase activity in the absence of added reductants, which was dependent on the integrity of the membrane. The intraluminal pyridine nucleotide pool could be oxidized by the addition of cortisone or metyrapone but(More)
Insufficient ascorbate intake causes scurvy in certain species. Beyond its known functions, it has been suggested that ascorbate participates in oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because redox imbalance in this organelle might cause ER stress and apoptosis, we hypothesized that this might contribute to the pathology of scurvy.(More)
Enzyme activities localized in the luminal compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum are integrated into the cellular metabolism by transmembrane fluxes of their substrates, products and/or cofactors. Most compounds involved are bulky, polar or even charged; hence, they cannot be expected to diffuse through lipid bilayers. Accordingly, transport processes(More)