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In normal rats the proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, which are induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides, are able to control thalamo-cortical excitability by exerting strong effects on physiological synchronization such as sleep and on pathological synchronization like that in epileptic discharges. To investigate whether(More)
Axonal degeneration is one of the earliest features of Parkinson's disease pathology, which is followed by neuronal death in the substantia nigra and other parts of the brain. Inhibition of axonal degeneration combined with cellular neuroprotection therefore seem key to targeting an early stage in Parkinson's disease progression. Based on our previous(More)
Probing molecular brain mechanisms related to increased suicide risk is an important issue in biological psychiatry research. Gene expression studies on post mortem brains indicate extensive changes prior to a successful suicide attempt; however, proteomic studies are scarce. Thus, we performed a DIGE proteomic analysis of post mortem tissue samples from(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). α-synuclein (αsyn) has been linked to the pathophysiology of PD, because of its mutations causing familial PD and its accumulation in brains of patients with familial and(More)
Cognitive dysfunction can be common among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and multiplication of the gene α-synuclein (αsyn) increases the risk of dementia. Here, we studied the role of dopamine-depletion and increased αsyn load and aggregation on cholinergic structures in vivo. Wild-type (WT) and mice with A30P αsyn overexpression were treated subacutely(More)
Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by loss of acetylcholine (ACh) from cortical areas. Clinical studies report positive effects of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors in PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies. We here report that the number of neurons expressing a cholinergic marker in the medial(More)
Deleterious sustained inflammation mediated by activated microglia is common to most of neurologic disorders. Here, we identified sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), an abundant deacetylase in the brain, as a major inhibitor of microglia-mediated inflammation and neurotoxicity. SIRT2-deficient mice (SIRT2(-/-)) showed morphological changes in microglia and an increase in(More)
In addition to classical genomic mechanisms, estrogen also exerts nonclassical effects via a signal transduction system on neurons. To study whether estrogen has a nonclassical effect on basal forebrain cholinergic system, we measured the intensity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation (pCREB) in cholinergic neurons after(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with prominent neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra (SN) and other parts of the brain. Previous studies in models of traumatic and neurodegenerative CNS disease showed that pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), a molecule involved in inhibitory signaling in the CNS, by(More)
Recently, several attempts have been made to describe changes related to certain anxiety states in the proteome of experimental animal models. However, these studies are restricted by limitations regarding the number and correct identification of separated proteins. Moreover, the application of a systems biology approach to discover the molecular mechanisms(More)