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The conditional fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis accumulates the photosensitizer protochlorophyllide in the dark. After a dark-to-light shift, the generation of singlet oxygen, a nonradical reactive oxygen species, starts within the first minute of illumination and was shown to be confined to plastids. Immediately after the shift, plants stopped(More)
Plants under oxidative stress suffer from damages that have been interpreted as unavoidable consequences of injuries inflicted upon plants by toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, this paradigm needs to be modified. Inactivation of a single gene, EXECUTER1, is sufficient to abrogate stress responses of Arabidopsis thaliana caused by the(More)
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has long been perceived as a stressor. However, a conceptual U-turn has taken place, and UV-B damage is now considered rare. We question whether UV-stress and UV-B-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are still relevant concepts, and if ROS-mediated signaling contributes to UV-B acclimation. Measurements of antioxidants and(More)
In plants experiencing environmental stress, the formation of reactive oxygen is often presumed. In this study, singlet oxygen was detected in broad bean (Vicia faba) leaves that were photoinhibited in vivo. Detection was based on the reaction of singlet oxygen with DanePy (dansyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole) yielding a nitroxide radical(More)
The roles of ascorbate (Asc) in the thylakoid lumen to support photosynthetic electron transport are investigated. Asc can be photooxidized in photosystem (PS) II and PSI. When the water oxidase complex (WOC) was inactivated by acidic pH or by UV-B, Asc was photooxidized in PSII with Asc replacing water as the electron donor. An apparent Km was 2.5mM. At(More)
Photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) activity and loss of the D1 reaction center protein were studied in PSII-enriched membrane fragments in which the water-splitting complex was inhibited by depletion of either calcium or chloride or by removing manganese. The Ca2+-depleted PSII was found to be the least susceptible to inhibition by light as reported(More)
In order to understand the physiological functions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in leaves, their direct measurement in vivo is of special importance. Here we report experiments with two dansyl-based ROS sensors, the singlet oxygen specific DanePy and HO-1889NH, which is reactive to both singlet oxygen and superoxide radicals. Here we report in(More)
The psbH gene encodes a small protein which copurifies with photosystem 2. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, psbH is located upstream of the cytochrome b6-f complex genes petC and petA. In striking contrast, in the genomes of plant chloroplasts, psbH is cotranscribed with petB and petD, encoding the other two major subunits of the cytochrome(More)
A series of dansylated sterically hindered amines designed to trapping reactive oxygen species, were synthesized. Compounds were tested in isolated thylakoid membranes subjected to photoinhibition by excess photosynthetically active radiation (400-700 nm). DanePy showed good selectivity for singlet oxygen and the formation of nitroxide was detected by(More)
Recent in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical experiments strongly suggest that sugar-(like) molecules counteract oxidative stress by acting as genuine reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. A concept was proposed to include the vacuole as a part of the cellular antioxidant network. According to this view, sugars and sugar-like vacuolar compounds work in(More)