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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule. We have shown that treatment with exogenous c-di-GMP inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection in a mouse model. We now report that c-di-GMP is an immodulator and immunostimulatory molecule. Intramammary treatment of mice with c-di-GMP 12 and 6 h before S. aureus challenge gave a(More)
Riboswitches are regulatory elements modulating gene expression in response to specific metabolite binding. It has been recently reported that riboswitch agonists may exhibit antimicrobial properties by binding to the riboswitch domain. Guanine riboswitches are involved in the regulation of transport and biosynthesis of purine metabolites, which are(More)
Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are persistent pathogenic bacteria characterized by slow growth and, for many of these strains, an increased ability to form biofilms and to persist within host cells. The virulence-associated gene expression profile of SCVs clearly differs from that of prototypical strains and is often influenced by SigB(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is the most significant bacterial pathogen associated with bovine mastitis. However, the relevance of intracellular infection to mastitis pathogenesis is poorly understood. We used in vitro assays and a mouse model of mastitis to demonstrate the intracellular component of the infection and to identify the importance of(More)
Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a major udder pathogen causing bovine mastitis. Some pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), enhance extracellular and intracellular growth of S. aureus, indicating that the inflammatory process favors S. aureus infection. Helenalin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent anti-inflammatory(More)
In Vibrio cholerae, the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) increases exopolysaccharides production and biofilm formation and decreases virulence and motility. As such, c-di-GMP is considered an important player in the transition from the host to persistence in the environment. c-di-GMP level is regulated through a(More)
Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) have been implicated in chronic and persistent infections. Bovine mastitis induced by S. aureus is an example of an infection difficult to eradicate by conventional antimicrobial therapies. In this study, the ability to colonize mouse mammary glands and persist under antibiotic treatment was assessed for S.(More)
The fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) of Staphylococcus aureus are believed to be implicated in the pathogen's adherence to and colonization of bovine mammary glands, thus leading to infectious mastitis. In vitro studies have shown that FnBPs help the adhesion of the pathogen to bovine mammary epithelial cells. However, the importance of FnBPs for the(More)
Despite the general in vitro susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates that cause infectious bovine mastitis, the pathogen remains difficult to eradicate with the available antibiotics. The capacity to survive intracellularly has been proposed as a factor contributing to the persistence of S. aureus in the bovine mammary gland. The costs associated(More)
Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are believed to account in part for the persistence of S. aureus during chronic infections. Little is understood about the gene expression profile that may explain the phenotype and distinguish SCVs from prototype S. aureus strains. In this study, DNA array transcriptional profiles of clinical SCVs isolated(More)