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A new gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantification of levamisole in human plasma and urine, using a nitrogen-phosphorus flame ionization detector. The adsorption of the drug onto glass was prevented by treating the glassware with a siliconizing agent. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 ng ml-1 and as low as 2 ng ml-1 can be detected in(More)
BACKGROUND Cytokines play an important role in infection and inflammation and are crucial mediators of the cross-talk between the brain and the immune system. Schizophrenia would be associated with an imbalance in inflammatory cytokines, leading to a decrease in Th1 and an increase in Th2 cytokine secretion. However, data published so far have been(More)
Cardiotoxicity has become a major concern during treatment with antimalarial drugs. Lengthening of the QTc and severe cardiac arrhythmia have been observed, particularly after treatment with halofantrine for chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate whether antimalarial agents alter dispersion(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence-based medicine suggests that schizophrenia is associated with an inflammatory syndrome, but the extent to which this syndrome is normalized by antipsychotic treatment has yet to be determined. METHODS A systematic quantitative review of the effects of antipsychotics on peripheral cytokine levels in schizophrenia was performed, using(More)
The left and right neocortex of the brain has been shown to exert asymmetrical effects on the immune system. In the present study, we used a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in Wistar rats to analyze the influence of unilateral CNS ischemia on spleen cell number and function. The occlusion time was 1 h, followed by reperfusion with survival for(More)
Disturbances in the endogenous cannabinoid (ECB) system in schizophrenia may contribute to their enhanced sensitivity to psychoactive substances, and the beneficial effects of second-generation antipsychotics for substance abuse in schizophrenia may involve modulatory effects on ECB. To verify these two assumptions, 29 patients (24 completers) with(More)
OBJECTIVE Fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur. Quetiapine fumarate extended-release (quetiapine XR) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of MDD and has been shown to have analgesic properties in patients with depression. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of quetiapine XR on depressive(More)
BACKGROUND Some but not all antipsychotics have been shown to modulate plasma cytokine levels in schizophrenia patients. Thus far, the most consistent finding has been the increase in plasma levels of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (sIL-2R) associated with clozapine treatment. Quetiapine is a second-generation antipsychotic with a pharmacological(More)
Background: Substantial evidence demonstrates the presence of an inflammatory syndrome in schizophre-nia, which is manifested by increased peripheral levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Unfortunately, the immunomodulatory effects of antipsychotics on peripheral cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Systemic hypoxia is a common complication in stroke patients and may exacerbate ischemic brain damage. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) is upregulated in the brain in both stroke patients and in animal stroke models and exerts local neuroprotective effects in the ischemic brain. Epo is also well known(More)