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Glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission is dependent on glutamate release from presynaptic vesicles loaded by three members of the solute carrier family, Slc17a6-8, which function as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Here, we show that VGLUT2 (Slc17a6) is required for life ex utero. Vglut2 null mutant mice die immediately after birth because of(More)
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is essential as a common heterodimerization partner of several nuclear receptors (NRs). However, its function as a bona fide receptor for endogenous ligands has remained poorly understood. Such a role would depend on the existence of RXR activating ligands in vivo and on the ability of such ligands to influence relevant(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of the Cip/Kip family play critical roles in regulating cell proliferation during embryogenesis. However, these proteins also influence cell differentiation by mechanisms that have remained unknown. Here we show that p57Kip2 is expressed in postmitotic differentiating midbrain dopamine cells. Induction of p57Kip2(More)
Nurr1 is a transcription factor that is expressed in the embryonic ventral midbrain and is critical for the development of dopamine (DA) neurons. It belongs to the conserved family of nuclear receptors but lacks an identified ligand and is therefore referred to as an orphan receptor. Recent structural studies have indicated that Nurr1 belongs to a class of(More)
During the past decade, three proteins that possess the capability of packaging glutamate into presynaptic vesicles have been identified and characterized. These three vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1-3, are encoded by solute carrier genes Slc17a6-8. VGLUT1 (Slc17a7) and VGLUT2 (Slc17a6) are expressed in glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 (Slc17a8)(More)
A major challenge in neuroscience is to resolve the connection between gene functionality, neuronal circuits, and behavior. Most, if not all, neuronal circuits of the adult brain contain a glutamatergic component, the nature of which has been difficult to assess because of the vast cellular abundance of glutamate. In this study, we wanted to determine the(More)
Recent data indicate that 'classical' neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters. This notion has been strengthened by the demonstration that three vesicular glutamate transporters (vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), VGLUT2 and VGLUT3) are present in central monoamine, acetylcholine and GABA neurons, as well as in primarily glutamatergic(More)
The natural response to itch sensation is to scratch, which relieves the itch through an unknown mechanism. Interaction between pain and itch has been frequently demonstrated, and the selectivity hypothesis of itch, based on data from electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, postulates the existence of primary pain afferents capable of repressing(More)
The mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system contributes to several aspects of responses to rewarding substances and is implicated in conditions such as drug addiction and eating disorders. A subset of DA neurons has been shown to express the type 2 Vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut2) and may therefore corelease glutamate. In the present study, we analyzed(More)
The "One neuron-one neurotransmitter" concept has been challenged frequently during the last three decades, and the coexistence of neurotransmitters in individual neurons is now regarded as a common phenomenon. The functional significance of neurotransmitter coexistence is, however, less well understood. Several studies have shown that a subpopulation of(More)