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Plant cells coordinately regulate the expression of nuclear and plastid genes that encode components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Nuclear genes that regulate chloroplast development and chloroplast gene expression provide part of this coordinate control. There is evidence that information also flows in the opposite direction, from chloroplasts to the(More)
Photosynthetic carbon metabolism was investigated in antisense Arabidopsis lines with decreased expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cFBPase). In the light, triose phosphates are exported from the chloroplast and converted to sucrose via cFBPase and SPS. At night, starch is degraded to glucose, exported(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana plants were grown at 23 degrees C and changes in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis and photosynthetic gene expression were studied after the plants were shifted to 5 degrees C. The responses of leaves shifted to 5 degrees C after development at 23 degrees C are compared to leaves that developed at 5 degrees C. Shifting warm(More)
Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23 degrees C and then shifted to 5 degrees C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5 degrees C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5 degrees C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23 degrees C. Leaf development(More)
The structure of the MAP kinase ERK2, a ubiquitous protein kinase target for regulation by Ras and Raf, has been solved in its unphosphorylated low-activity conformation to a resolution of 2.3 A. The two domains of unphosphorylated ERK2 are farther apart than in the active conformation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the peptide-binding site is blocked(More)
Exposure to high irradiance results in dramatic changes in nuclear gene expression in plants. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which changes in irradiance are sensed and how the information is transduced to the nucleus to initiate the genetic response. To investigate whether the photoreceptors are involved in the response to high irradiance,(More)
Low temperature inhibits sucrose synthesis, leading to a phosphate-limitation of photosynthesis. We have used the Arabidopsis pho1-2 and pho2-1 mutants with decreased and increased shoot phosphate, respectively, to investigate whether low phosphate triggers cold acclimatization of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Wild-type Arabidopsis, pho1-2 and pho2-1(More)
Retrograde signaling coordinates the expression of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins with the metabolic and developmental state of the organelle. These plastid signals are essential not only for coordinating photosynthetic gene expression in both the nucleus and in the chloroplasts but also for mediating plant stress responses. The chloroplasts(More)
The photosynthetic apparatus is composed of proteins encoded by genes from both the nuclear and the chloroplastic genomes. The activities of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes must therefore be closely coordinated through intracellular signalling. The plastids produce multiple retrograde signals at different times of their development, and in response to(More)
The photosynthetic apparatus is composed of proteins encoded by genes from both the nucleus and the chloroplast. To ensure that the photosynthetic complexes are assembled stoichiometrically and to enable their rapid reorganization in response to a changing environment, the plastids emit signals that regulate nuclear gene expression to match the status of(More)