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BACKGROUND A most important characteristic feature for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) is the presence of lymph node metastasis. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA levels in lymph nodes has proven powerful for quantification of disseminated tumour cells. Here, we investigate the utility of human tissue kallikrein-related(More)
High macrophage infiltration has been correlated to improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play complex roles in tumorigenesis since they are believed to hold both tumor preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. Here we have applied an immunohistochemical approach to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN expression have been in focus to predict the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor-blocking therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, information on these four aberrations was collected and combined to a Quadruple index and used to evaluate the prognostic role of these factors in CRC. PATIENTS We(More)
-An active stroma is important for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in relation to patient prognosis in colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer specimens from 449 patients were immunohistochemically stained with a FAP antibody and evaluated in the tumor center and tumor front using a(More)
BACKGROUND There is good evidence in the literature that the cannabinoid system is disturbed in colorectal cancer. In the present study, we have investigated whether CB(1) receptor immunoreactive intensity (CB(1)IR intensity) is associated with disease severity and outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS CB(1)IR was assessed in formalin-fixed,(More)
BACKGROUND To find improved tools for prognostic evaluation in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), we have analysed how infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8(+)) and regulatory T lymphocytes (FoxP3(+)) correlates to prognosis, not only according to quantity and relation, but also to subsite within tumours of different molecular characteristics(More)
Accurate identification of lymph node involvement is critical for successful treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR with a specific probe and RNA copy standard for biomarker mRNA has proven very powerful for detection of disseminated tumour cells. Which properties of biomarker mRNAs are important for(More)
The conflicting results about the prognostic impact of tumour cell proliferation in colorectal cancer might be explained by the heterogeneity observed within these tumours. We have investigated whether a systematic spatial heterogeneity exists between different compartments, and whether the presence of such a systematic heterogeneity has any impact on(More)
Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy and also one of the main causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Aberrant expression of the transcription factor SOX2 has recently been observed in several cancer types, but its role in CRC has not been fully elucidated. Here we studied the expression of SOX2 in 441 CRC patients by immunohistochemistry and(More)
Giving strong prognostic information, T-cell infiltration is on the verge of becoming an additional component in the routine clinical setting for classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). With a view to further improving the tools for prognostic evaluation, we have studied how Th1 lymphocyte infiltration correlates with prognosis not only by quantity, but(More)