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BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO*) plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent in mouse macrophages. NO* resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with a severe outcome of these diseases. METHODS In this study we evaluated the in vitro toxicity of nitric oxide for the promastigote stages of Leishmania (Viannia)(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) produced in macrophages plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent. A previous study has demonstrated that 20% of the L. (V.) braziliensis isolated from initial cutaneous lesions of patients from the endemic area of Corte de Pedra, Bahia, Brazil, were NO resistant. Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania preferentially infects macrophages, which allow the parasite to multiply but can also kill the parasite. Although the T cell response in human leishmaniasis is well-characterized, little is known about the concomitant macrophage behavior. The aim of this study was to characterize the macrophage immune response after Leishmania(More)
BACKGROUND Leishmania braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Protection against infection is related to development of Th1 responses, but the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility are still poorly understood. Murine models have been the most important tools in understanding the immunopathogenesis of L. major(More)
BACKGROUND Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS In the current study we evaluated the in vitro production of the cytokines IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-5 and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)(More)
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) induces activation and spontaneous proliferation of T cells with production of type-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines. It modifies the immune response to other antigens and increases susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, little is known about innate immunity in HTLV-1 infection. HTLV-1-infected(More)
Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote(More)