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Impaired inhibition is thought to be important in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of epilepsy in adult patients. We report that, in experimental TLE, spontaneous GABAergic inhibition was increased in the soma but reduced in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons. The former resulted from the hyperactivity of somatic projecting interneurons,(More)
UNLABELLED We present a first-draft digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The reconstruction uses cellular and synaptic organizing principles to algorithmically reconstruct detailed anatomy and physiology from sparse experimental data. An objective anatomical method defines a neocortical volume of 0.29 ± 0.01(More)
The major class of cochlear afferent fibers, the type-I or radial-fiber (RF) population, has been subdivided into three functional groups according to spontaneous discharge rate (SR): those with low SR have the highest acoustic thresholds, high SR fibers have the lowest thresholds and medium SR fibers are of intermediate sensitivity (Liberman [1978] J.(More)
The advent of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the 1950s represented a fundamental step in the study of neuronal circuits. The application of this technique soon led to the realization that the number of synapses changes during the course of normal life, as well as under certain pathological or experimental circumstances. Since then, one of the(More)
In the present work we discuss several sampling procedures commonly used for counting synapses in the cerebral cortex. We compare, within the same tissue, two frequently used sterereological methods for determining the numerical density of synapses per unit volume, using as an example the estimation of the number of types of synapses by layers in the(More)
Using a fluorescent avidin-biotin technique, we have immunolocalized the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, in postnatal developing and adult rat organs of Corti. At birth, the glutamate decarboxylase-like immunoreactivity is already present in the basal turn below the inner hair cells, i.e. within lateral olivocochlear efferent fibers of(More)
The development of olivocochlear efferent fibers has been studied by means of the immunocytochemical detection of the growth-associated protein GAP-43. This study has been carried out in pre- and postnatal, developing, pigmented rats. Results indicate that olivocochlear efferents reach the developing auditory epithelium from embryonic day 18 on. GAP-43-like(More)
Cochlear efferent innervation originates in two different groups of neurons located in the superior olivary complex. A first group of olivocochlear neurons (lateral efferent neurons) lies in the lateral superior olive. They send axons to the organ of Corti, where they synapse with radial afferent dendrites of primary auditory neurons, postsynaptic to the(More)
In the cerebral cortex, most synapses are found in the neuropil, but relatively little is known about their 3-dimensional organization. Using an automated dual-beam electron microscope that combines focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy, we have been able to obtain 10 three-dimensional samples with an average volume of 180 µm(3) from the(More)
The fine analysis of synaptic contacts is usually performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and its combination with neuronal labeling techniques. However, the complex 3D architecture of neuronal samples calls for their reconstruction from serial sections. Here we show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) allows(More)