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Dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible for priming T cells and for promoting their differentiation from naive T cells into appropriate effector cells. Emerging evidence suggests that neurotransmitters can modulate T cell-mediated immunity. However, the involvement of specific neurotransmitters or receptors remains poorly understood. In this study, we(More)
Caveolin-1 reportedly acts as a tumor suppressor and promotes events associated with tumor progression, including metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying such radical differences in function are not understood. Recently, we showed that caveolin-1 inhibits expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin via a transcriptional mechanism(More)
At the present time, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an integral part of immunology but the route from discovery of "suppressive" lymphocytes in the 1980s to the current established concept of Tregs almost 20 years later has been a rollercoaster ride. Tregs are essential for maintaining self-tolerance as defects in their compartment lead to severe autoimmune(More)
Survivin is an intracellular tumor-associated antigen that is broadly expressed in a large variety of tumors and also in tumor associated endothelial cells but mostly absent in differentiated tissues. Naked DNA vaccines targeting survivin have been shown to induce T cell as well as humoral immune responses in mice. However, the lack of epitope-specific CD8+(More)
The role of caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer is highly controversial. CAV1 suppresses genes that favor tumor development, yet also promotes focal adhesion turnover and migration of metastatic cells. How these contrasting observations relate to CAV1 function in vivo is unclear. Our previous studies implicate E-cadherin in CAV1-dependent tumor suppression. Here,(More)
Survivin, a 16.5 kDa tumor associated antigen, is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family that is abundantly expressed during development but essentially absent in normal adult tissues. Interestingly, survivin expression is up-regulated in virtually all types of cancers studied, as well as in vascular endothelial cells during tumor(More)
DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit tumor-protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity in preclinical models, but have shown limited efficacy in cancer patients. Plasmids used for DNA vaccines can stimulate several innate immune receptors, triggering the activation of master transcription factors, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and(More)
Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease that responds poorly to classical treatments but can be targeted by T cell-based immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines have the potential to generate long-lasting cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses able to eradicate established and disseminated tumors. Vaccination against antigens expressed by tumor cells with enhanced(More)
DNA vaccination is an attractive approach to induce antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can mediate protective antitumor immunity. The potency of DNA vaccines encoding weakly immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be enhanced by codelivering gene-encoded adjuvants. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense(More)
Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), plays an important role in the control of apoptosis, cell division, and cell migration/metastasis. Survivin is expressed and required for normal fetal development but is then generally no longer present in most adult tissues. However, reexpression of survivin is observed in(More)