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BACKGROUND Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of(More)
The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to(More)
AIMS To evaluate the effectiveness of home-based peer counselling to increase breastfeeding rates for unfavourably low birthweight babies. METHODS Randomized clinical trial carried out in maternity hospitals and households in Fortaleza, one of the regions in Brazil with very low income; 1003 mothers and their newborns were selected in eight maternity(More)
A multi-country evaluation is being carried out in Brazil and four other countries to determine the effectiveness, cost, and impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). We examine the effect of IMCI on the quality of health care provided to children under five visiting health facilities. A health facility survey was conducted at 24(More)
OBJECTIVE Primary care offers opportunities to expand children's access to mental health (MH) services, but a given practice's community context and staff attitudes may influence which integration models are feasible. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using community-based primary care to increase access to MH services in low-income(More)
Enteric infections, enteropathy and undernutrition in early childhood are preventable risk factors for child deaths, impaired neurodevelopment, and later life metabolic diseases. However, the mechanisms linking these exposures and outcomes remain to be elucidated, as do biomarkers for identifying children at risk. By examining the urinary metabolic(More)
OBJECTIVE to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with wheezing in infants in the first year of life. METHODS this was a cross-sectional study, in which a validated questionnaire (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes--International Study of Wheezing in Infants--EISL) was applied to parents of infants aged between 12 and 15(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the autonomic behavior between malnourished children and a control group using analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). METHOD Data were analyzed from 70 children who were divided into two groups: malnourished and eutrophic, according to the Z-score nutritional status for height and age. For analysis of HRV indices, heart rate was(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain information on the hospital mortality of infants born in Fortaleza with birth weights less than or equal to 1,500 g, and to compare it with data from the Vermont Oxford Network, a center of excellence for neonatal care. METHODS Prospective cohort study, enrolling all infants with birth weight less than or equal to 1,500 g born in(More)
OBJECTIVES Deficits in weight gain and linear growth are seen frequently among children in areas where malnutrition and recurrent infections are common. Although both inflammation and malnutrition can result in growth hormone (GH) resistance, the interrelationships of infection, inflammation, and growth deficits in developing areas remain unclear. The aim(More)