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Non-A beta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NAC) is the second component in the amyloid from brain tissue of patients affected with Alzheimer's disease. Its precursor protein (NACP) was shown to be a brain-specific protein. In rat brain, NACP was more abundant in the neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum and(More)
Release of membrane vesicles, a process conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, represents an evolutionary link, and suggests essential functions of a dynamic extracellular vesicular compartment (including exosomes, microparticles or microvesicles and apoptotic bodies). Compelling evidence supports the significance of this compartment in a broad range(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) characteristics are induced and maintained by cross-talk between brain microvessel endothelial cells and neighbouring elements of the neurovascular unit. While pericytes are the cells situated closest to brain endothelial cells morphologically and share a common basement membrane, they have not been used in co-culture BBB models(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore how genetic deletion and pharmacological antagonism of the P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) alter mood-related behaviour, gene expression and stress reactivity in the brain. The forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AH) tests were used in wild-type (P2rx7(+/+)) and(More)
The localization of calcium and calcium-activated ATPases was investigated electron microscopically in the medial habenula of mice after whole body irradiation with modulated microwaves. In non-irradiated animals calcium-containing precipitates were seen in different subcellular compartments and were often localized on the luminal side of membranes of(More)
Recent investigations have revealed that the genetic deletion of P2X7 receptors (P2rx7) results in an antidepressant phenotype in mice. However, the link between the deficiency of P2rx7 and changes in behavior has not yet been explored. In the present study, we studied the effect of genetic deletion of P2rx7 on neurochemical changes in the hippocampus that(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), the dynamic interface between the nervous tissue and the blood, is composed by endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their receptors (the purinergic system) constitute a widely diffused signaling system involved in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of this(More)
In this study, the P2 receptor-mediated modulation of [3H]glutamate and [3H]noradrenaline release were examined in rat spinal cord slices. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-MeSADP) decreased the electrical stimulation-evoked [3H]glutamate efflux with the following order of potency:(More)
The release of endogenous ATP, measured by the luciferin-luciferase assay, and the release of [3H]acetylcholine from the isolated superior cervical ganglion of the rat loaded with [3H]choline were studied simultaneously. Electrical field stimulation enhanced the release of endogenous ATP and acetylcholine in a [Ca2+]o-dependent manner. The Na+ channel(More)
INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of studies aiming to understand the biology of exosomes, as well as other extracellular vesicles. However, classification of membrane vesicles and the appropriate protocols for their isolation are still under intense discussion and investigation. When isolating vesicles, it(More)