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Autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial infection. Efficient pathogen engulfment is mediated by cargo-selecting autophagy adaptors that rely on unidentified pattern-recognition or danger receptors to label invading pathogens as autophagy cargo, typically by polyubiquitin coating. Here we show in human cells that galectin 8 (also known as(More)
Autophagy protects cellular homeostasis by capturing cytosolic components and invading pathogens for lysosomal degradation. Autophagy receptors target cargo to autophagy by binding ATG8 on autophagosomal membranes. The expansion of the ATG8 family in higher eukaryotes suggests that specific interactions with autophagy receptors facilitate differential cargo(More)
Influenza A virus segment 2 is known to encode two polypeptides in overlapping open reading frames: PB1, the polymerase, and PB1-F2, a proapoptotic virulence factor. We show that a third major polypeptide is synthesized from PB1 mRNA via differential AUG codon usage. PB1 codon 40 directs translation of an N-terminally truncated version of the polypeptide(More)
Influenza viruses are the cause of yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics that represent a significant challenge to public health. Current control strategies are imperfect and there is an unmet need for new antiviral therapies. Here, we report the identification of small molecule compounds able to effectively and specifically inhibit growth of influenza(More)
The viral RNA (vRNA) genome of influenza A virus is replicated in the nucleus, exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), and trafficked to the plasma membrane through uncertain means. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect vRNA as well as the live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled RNPs, we show that an early event in vRNA(More)
Avian influenza A viruses often do not propagate efficiently in mammalian cells. The viral polymerase protein PB2 is important for this host restriction, with amino-acid polymorphisms at residue 627 and other positions acting as 'signatures' of avian- or human-adapted viruses. Restriction is hypothesized to result from differential interactions (either(More)
The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral(More)
Autophagy defends the mammalian cytosol against bacterial invasion. Efficient bacterial engulfment by autophagy requires cargo receptors that bind (a) homolog(s) of the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8 on the phagophore membrane. The existence of multiple ATG8 orthologs in higher eukaryotes suggests that they may perform distinct functions. However, no specific(More)
Mammalian cells deploy autophagy to defend their cytosol against bacterial invaders. Anti-bacterial autophagy relies on the core autophagy machinery, cargo receptors, and "eat-me" signals such as galectin-8 and ubiquitin that label bacteria as autophagy cargo. Anti-bacterial autophagy also requires the kinase TBK1, whose role in autophagy has remained(More)
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